Diet And Brain Health: You Are What You Eat

poached egg with vegetables and tomatoes on blue plate

The human brain is the central control centre of our thoughts, emotions, and actions. It is essential for our daily functioning and long-term well-being. Food is crucial in supporting brain health, as what we eat directly affects brain function and mental health. In recent years, researchers have been studying the impacts of food on the human brain, and the results of these studies have been both surprising and illuminating.

A well-known fact is that the nourishment we receive even prior to birth determines the development of our brain. For example, a study of 23,000 pregnant women found that high prenatal consumption of sweet and sugary foods was linked to higher incidents of stress, anti-social behaviors, and other cognitive issues in children later in life. Similarly, dietary deficiencies in laboratory mice have produced similar consequences for brain health.

Food science has shown that consuming omega-3 fatty acids in the form of seeds, nuts, oily fish, and vegetable oils can improve the electrical properties of nerve cells in the brain. However, few consumers actually receive the recommended daily intake of these brain-healthy foods. On the other hand, the industrialized world relies heavily on processed foods, including those high in fructose corn syrup, which have been linked to imbalances in the brain and associated with aggressive, listless, and agitated behavior. In one study, hamsters on a strict corn-based diet even resorted to cannibalism.

I am hoping to shed light on the connection between diet and brain health, and to provide practical tips for incorporating brain-healthy foods into your daily diet. By understanding the importance of diet on brain health, we hope to empower individuals to make informed choices about their food and support their mental well-being. I am not an expert, just someone recently excited about healthy living, self care and eating well.

Feed your brain

Imagine this: your brain is like a high-performance engine that’s always running. It controls your thoughts and movements, your breathing and heartbeat, and even your senses. It’s always hard at work, even while you’re asleep. And to keep this engine running smoothly, it needs the right kind of fuel. That’s where the food you eat comes in – it directly affects the way your brain functions and how you feel.

Just like a fancy sports car, your brain needs premium fuel to perform at its best. Eating healthy, nutritious foods that are packed with vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants will give your brain the fuel it needs to function properly and protect it from oxidative stress.

But beware! Feeding your brain junk food is like putting low-quality gasoline into that fancy sports car. If you eat too much processed or refined foods, your brain may not be able to get rid of the harmful substances they contain. Eating a diet high in refined sugars, for example, can be harmful to the brain. Studies have shown that this type of diet can impair brain function and even worsen mood disorders such as depression. So, it’s important to choose wisely and fuel your brain with the best “gas” possible!

It’s only natural. If your brain doesn’t get the right nutrients, or if harmful substances like free radicals or inflammation are present, it’s bound to have an impact. But for a long time, the connection between food and mood wasn’t fully understood by the medical community.

Now, the exciting field of nutritional psychiatry is revealing the many links between what you eat, how you feel, and even how you behave. Studies are finding that the type of bacteria in your gut can also play a role. It’s amazing to think about all the ways that food affects your brain and overall well-being.

The impact of different diets on brain health

Have you ever thought about the connection between what you eat and how you feel? Turns out, there’s more to it than just satisfying hunger. The state of your gut can actually have a big impact on your emotions, thanks to a neurotransmitter called serotonin.

Here’s the thing, about 95% of your serotonin is produced in your gut, which is home to a hundred million nerve cells, known as neurons. These neurons are important because they help regulate not just digestion, but also emotions. And, get this, the function of these neurons, and the production of neurotransmitters like serotonin, is highly influenced by the good bacteria in your gut.

Think about it, the good bacteria in your gut play a crucial role in keeping you healthy. They protect your intestines from toxins and bad bacteria, reduce inflammation, help you absorb nutrients from food, and activate pathways between your gut and brain.

Studies have compared traditional diets like the Mediterranean and traditional Japanese diets to a typical Western diet, and found that people who follow a traditional diet have a 25% to 35% lower risk of depression. This is partly because traditional diets are rich in fruits, vegetables, unprocessed grains, fish and seafood, and contain only modest amounts of dairy and lean meats. They also avoid processed and refined foods and sugars, which are commonly found in a Western diet. Plus, many of the foods in these traditional diets are fermented, acting as natural probiotics.

It may sound strange, but the idea that good bacteria can impact not just digestion, but also inflammation throughout the body, mood, and energy levels, is gaining support among researchers.

The benefits of a Mediterranean diet

When it comes to fats, there are both healthy and unhealthy options. A Mediterranean-style diet is all about incorporating good fats and carbohydrates. Bad fats to avoid include saturated, trans, and cholesterol. On the other hand, good fats are the monounsaturated ones found in foods such as olive oil and polyunsaturated ones in fish, canola oil, and walnuts.

The Mediterranean diet is a traditional way of eating that is prevalent in countries along the Mediterranean Sea, such as Greece, Italy, and Spain. It is characterized by its emphasis on plant-based foods, such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, and nuts, as well as healthy fats, such as olive oil, and moderate amounts of fish and poultry.

vegetable salad on bowl flat lay photography
vegetable salad on bowl flat lay photography

Studies have shown that this diet can have numerous benefits for brain health. A diet rich in plant-based foods provides essential nutrients, such as vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants, that support brain function and reduce the risk of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease. The healthy fats found in the Mediterranean diet, particularly olive oil, have been shown to be beneficial for brain health, as they help to reduce inflammation and improve cognitive function.

In addition to the benefits for brain health, the Mediterranean diet has also been shown to be beneficial for cardiovascular health. A healthy cardiovascular system is crucial for maintaining good brain function, as it ensures a steady supply of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

Several large-scale studies have confirmed the benefits of the Mediterranean diet for brain health. One study found that individuals following a Mediterranean diet had a reduced risk of cognitive decline and dementia, compared to those following a Western diet. Another study found that older adults who followed a Mediterranean diet had better cognitive function and a reduced risk of depression, compared to those who did not follow this diet.

Overall, the Mediterranean diet is a nutritious and delicious way of eating that has been shown to be beneficial for both brain health and overall well-being. By incorporating more plant-based foods, healthy fats, and moderate amounts of fish and poultry into your diet, you can support your brain health and reduce the risk of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders.

Plant-based diets for brain health

Plant-based diets, which emphasize whole, unprocessed foods, have been shown to be beneficial for brain health. These diets are typically high in antioxidants, anti-inflammatory compounds, and essential nutrients, which support brain function and reduce the risk of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, plant-based diets have been shown to improve cardiovascular health, which is a key factor in maintaining brain health.

A plant-based diet focuses on consuming foods that come from plant sources such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, nuts, and seeds. This type of diet has been linked to various health benefits, including improved brain health. Plant-based diets are rich in antioxidants, which are compounds that protect the brain from harmful free radicals and oxidative stress. Additionally, they contain anti-inflammatory compounds that reduce inflammation in the body, including the brain. Inflammation has been linked to a range of neurodegenerative conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease.

Another benefit of a plant-based diet for brain health is its abundance of essential nutrients. These nutrients, such as vitamins B, C, and E, play an important role in maintaining brain health by supporting the brain’s structure and function. Additionally, many plant-based foods are high in fiber, which can help regulate blood sugar levels and support healthy digestion.

A plant-based diet has also been linked to improved cardiovascular health. A healthy heart is essential for a healthy brain, as it supplies the brain with the necessary oxygen and nutrients it needs to function properly. A plant-based diet has been shown to lower blood pressure, reduce the risk of heart disease, and improve cholesterol levels, which are all important factors in maintaining a healthy heart and brain.

Other diets and their impact on brain health There are several other diets, such as the low-carb diet and the ketogenic diet, that have been studied for their impact on brain health

The low-carb diet and the ketogenic diet are two popular diets that have been studied for their impact on brain health. The low-carb diet restricts carbohydrate intake and emphasizes the consumption of proteins and healthy fats, whereas the ketogenic diet is a very low-carb, high-fat diet that aims to induce a state of ketosis, in which the body burns fat for energy instead of glucose. Research suggests that the low-carb and ketogenic diets may improve brain function, boost mood, and reduce the risk of certain brain-related conditions such as epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease. However, more research is needed to fully understand the impact of these diets on brain health, and it is important to note that these diets may not be suitable for everyone. It’s always best to speak with a doctor or a registered dietitian before making significant changes to your diet.

The Role of Key Nutrients in Brain Health

It’s important to understand that fats play a crucial role in maintaining optimal brain health, as they make up nearly 60% of the brain’s composition. One of the essential types of fat that the brain needs is docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which comprises 25% of the brain’s fat. This omega-3 fat helps to reduce inflammation in the brain and improve communication between brain cells.

To ensure that you are getting enough of this important nutrient, it’s a good idea to include sources of DHA in your diet. Some of the top sources of DHA include fatty fish such as salmon, tuna, and sardines. In addition, the body can also produce DHA from plant-based sources, such as flaxseeds, walnuts, and soybeans. However, it’s important to note that DHA from fish sources is more easily absorbed and utilized by the body compared to plant-based sources. To get the most benefits from these plant-based sources, it is recommended to consume them in conjunction with a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which can be converted into DHA in the body.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids Omega-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids that play a crucial role in brain health. These fatty acids are known for their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, which help to protect the brain from oxidative stress and damage. Omega-3 fatty acids are also important for the formation and maintenance of cell membranes, particularly in the brain. These fatty acids are essential for maintaining the integrity of brain cells, and they play a crucial role in communication between brain cells, as well as in the regulation of neurotransmitters like dopamine and serotonin. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to improve cognitive function, particularly in older adults and those with age-related cognitive decline.

Sources of Omega-3s The best sources of omega-3 fatty acids are fatty fish, such as salmon, mackerel, sardines, and herring. Other good sources include flaxseeds, chia seeds, walnuts, and canola oil. Vegetables such as spinach, kale, and broccoli are also rich in omega-3 fatty acids, although not as much as animal sources.


Vitamins play a critical role in brain health, particularly in the production of neurotransmitters, the maintenance of nerve cell integrity, and the regulation of inflammation. Vtamins are essential for the synthesis of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, which play important roles in regulating mood and mental function. Vitamins also help to maintain the health of nerve cells, as well as the myelin sheath that surrounds them, which is important for proper nerve conduction. In addition, B vitamins are important for regulating inflammation throughout the body, and for maintaining cardiovascular health, which is a key factor in maintaining brain health.

Sources of Vitamins Vitamins can be found in a variety of foods, including meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dairy products, and whole grains. Leafy green vegetables such as spinach and kale are also good sources of B vitamins, as are nuts, seeds, and legumes. For example, chicken, turkey, and beef are rich in B12, while nuts and seeds, such as almonds, sunflower seeds, and pumpkin seeds, are good sources of B6. Whole grains, such as brown rice and whole wheat bread, are good sources of B1, B2, and B3.

Antioxidants Antioxidants are compounds that help to protect the body against oxidative stress and damage, and they play a crucial role in maintaining brain health. Oxidative stress is a natural process that occurs in the body, but it can become excessive and lead to damage in the brain and other parts of the body. Antioxidants help to counteract the effects of oxidative stress by neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable molecules that can cause damage to cells. Antioxidants also help to protect the brain from damage caused by inflammation, and they play a role in the formation and maintenance of blood vessels, which is important for the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the brain.

Sources of antioxidants Antioxidants can be found in a variety of foods, including fruits and vegetables. Berries, such as blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries, are particularly high in antioxidants. Other good sources include leafy green vegetables, such as spinach and kale, as well as nuts, seeds, and legumes. For example, pomegranates, red grapes, and red bell peppers are good sources of the

Foods to Include in a Brain-Healthy Diet

Leafy Greens: Leafy greens are a key component of a brain-healthy diet. These foods, such as spinach, kale, and collard greens, are rich in vitamins and minerals, particularly folic acid, which is essential for healthy brain function. They are also high in antioxidants, which help to protect the brain from oxidative damage, and anti-inflammatory compounds, which reduce the risk of chronic inflammation and related health conditions, such as Alzheimer’s disease. In addition, leafy greens contain lutein, a carotenoid that is important for eye and brain health.

Berries: Berries are another food to include in a brain-healthy diet. They are high in antioxidants, particularly anthocyanins, which help to protect the brain from oxidative stress and reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline. Berries also contain other compounds that promote brain health, such as resveratrol and ellagic acid. Some of the best berries to include in your diet are blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, and raspberries.

Nuts and Seeds: Nuts and seeds are good sources of healthy fats, antioxidants, and other essential nutrients, such as vitamin E and magnesium. These foods can help to improve brain function, reduce inflammation, and support cardiovascular health, which is important for maintaining brain health. Some of the best nuts and seeds to include in your diet are almonds, walnuts, chia seeds, and flaxseeds.

Whole Grains: Whole grains are an important part of a brain-healthy diet. They are high in fiber, which helps to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, and contain essential nutrients, such as vitamins, iron, and magnesium. Whole grains also help to regulate blood sugar levels, which is important for maintaining stable energy and mood levels. Some of the best whole grains to include in your diet are brown rice, quinoa, and whole wheat.

Fish: Fish is a great food for brain health. Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and sardines, are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are important for reducing inflammation and promoting communication between brain cells. Omega-3 fatty acids also help to improve memory and cognitive function, as well as reduce the risk of age-related cognitive decline and depression. In addition, fish is a good source of protein, vitamins, and minerals, such as vitamin D and B12, which are important for maintaining brain health.

Foods to limit or avoid for optimal brain health

For optimal brain health, it is important to limit or avoid certain types of foods that can have a negative impact on cognitive function and overall health.

Processed and sugary foods: Processed foods are often high in refined sugars and artificial ingredients that can cause spikes in blood sugar levels and lead to inflammation, both of which can harm the brain. High levels of sugar can also disrupt the balance of hormones and neurotransmitters in the brain, leading to mood swings, cognitive decline, and other neurological issues.

Fried and fatty foods: Fried and fatty foods are often high in unhealthy fats that contribute to oxidative stress and inflammation in the body, both of which can damage the brain and increase the risk of neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. These foods are also usually high in calories, leading to weight gain and other related health issues that can negatively impact brain health.

High sodium foods: Excessive salt intake can raise blood pressure, leading to an increased risk of stroke and other cardiovascular issues. High-sodium diets can also increase inflammation, which can harm the brain and lead to a decline in cognitive function. Foods high in sodium include processed snacks, frozen dinners, and fast food. To keep sodium levels in check, it is important to limit processed foods and opt for fresh, whole foods instead.

While it is important to limit or avoid these foods for optimal brain health, it is equally important to focus on a balanced, nutrient-dense diet that includes plenty of fresh fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats. This can help to support overall health, including brain health, and reduce the risk of chronic diseases and conditions.

Practical Tips for Incorporating a Brain-Healthy Diet into Your Lifestyle

Meal Planning and Preparation Proper meal planning and preparation is crucial in ensuring that you are getting all the necessary nutrients for optimal brain health. This can be done by creating a weekly menu and grocery list that includes a variety of brain-healthy foods such as leafy greens, berries, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and fish. You can also make and store pre-packaged meals and snacks for when you are on the go, making it easier to stick to a healthy diet.

Making Healthy Food Choices When Eating Out Dining out can be tempting and often leads to unhealthy food choices. To make sure you are making healthy choices, do your research before going to a restaurant and check the menu online. Look for dishes that are high in brain-healthy nutrients like omega-3 fatty acids, antioxidants, and essential vitamins. If there are limited options, ask the server to make modifications to the dish, such as replacing fried foods with baked or grilled options, or reducing the amount of salt used in cooking.

Stocking Your Kitchen with Brain-Healthy Foods Keeping your kitchen well-stocked with brain-healthy foods makes it easier to stick to a healthy diet. Keep your pantry and refrigerator stocked with foods like leafy greens, berries, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and fish. Also, consider keeping healthy snacks like raw veggies or fruit on hand to help you avoid processed and sugary foods.

Importance of Moderation While it is important to eat a diet that is rich in brain-healthy nutrients, it is also crucial to practice moderation. Avoiding all processed and sugary foods, fried and fatty foods, and high-sodium food is not necessary. Instead, aim to limit your intake of these foods and balance your diet with a variety of healthy foods. This will not only help support brain health but overall health as well.


In conclusion, a brain-healthy diet should focus on incorporating a variety of fresh, whole, nutrient-dense foods, such as leafy greens, berries, nuts and seeds, whole grains, and fatty fish. It is also important to limit or avoid processed and sugary foods, fried and fatty foods, and high-sodium foods. Additionally, proper meal planning and preparation, making healthy food choices when eating out, and stocking your kitchen with brain-healthy foods is key to incorporating a brain-healthy diet into your lifestyle. With these tips and a balanced, nutrient-dense diet, you can support your brain health and reduce the risk of cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders.

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